Mindfulness and Well-Being: Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Promoting Well-Being and its Impact on Cognitive, Emotional, and Physiological Processes
Keywords:Mindfulness, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Stress, Burnout, Resilience.
There has been a lot of interest in mindfulness-based treatments (MBIs) in recent years as a potentially effective method for increasing happiness and decreasing anxiety. The purpose of this study is to examine the research done on the positive effects of MBIs and the mechanisms by which they work. Here, we explore the research behind the claims that mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) are successful in increasing happiness and decreasing stress. Mindfulness has been demonstrated in scientific studies to have a number of positive effects on mental health, including better focus, memory, and decision-making. Mindfulness may also help with emotional management by raising upbeat emotions while decreasing downbeat ones and decreasing stress reaction time. Reductions in stress hormones like cortisol and other physiological indicators like blood pressure and inflammation mirror these mental and emotional shifts. Additionally, randomised controlled studies show that MBIs are beneficial in lowering depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms and raising well-being outcomes including life satisfaction and resiliency. These results hold steady over time and have been seen across a wide range of groups, both clinical and non-clinical. Finally, this report emphasises the need for more study to understand the underlying processes and optimise the administration of MBIs, as well as the value of mindfulness as a viable strategy to increasing well-being and lowering stress. The results of this study have significance for the design of programmes to promote mental health and well-being across demographics.
Amutio, A., Martinez-Taboada, C., Delgado, L.C., Hermosilla, D., & Mozaz, M.J. (2015). Acceptability and effectiveness of a long-termeducational intervention to reduce physicians stress-related condi-tions. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions,35 (4), 255–260. https://doi.org/10.1097/ceh.0000000000000002.
Ando, M., Natsume, T., Kukihara, H., Shibata, H., & Ito, S. (2011). Efficacy of mindfulness-based meditation therapy on the sense ofcoherence and mental health of nurses. Health, 3 (2), 108–122. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2011.32022.
Awa, W. L., Plaumann, M., & Walter, U. (2010). Burnout prevention: A review of intervention programs. Patient Education and Counselling, 78(2), 184–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2009.04.008.
Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy. bpg015.
Bazarko, D., Cate, R.A., Azocar, F., & Kreitzer, M.J. (2013). The im-pact of innovative mindfulness-based stress reduction program on the health and well-being of nurses employed in a corporate setting Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health, 28 (2), 107–133. https://doi.org/10.1080/15555240.2013.779518.
Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A pro-posed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230–241. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bph077.
Brady, S., O’Connor, N., Burgermeister D., & Hanson, P. (2012). The impact of mindfulness meditation in promoting a culture of safety on an acute psychiatric unit. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 48, 129– 137. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2011.00315.x.
Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2011.00315.x.
Bryon, G., Ziedonis, D. M., McGarth, C., Frazier, J. A., deTorrijos, F., & Fulwiler, C. (2015). Implementation of mindfulness training for mental health staff: Organisational context and stakeholder perspec- tives. Mindfulness, 6, 861–872. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0330-2.
Burton, A., Burgess, C., Dean, S., Koutsopoulou, G. Z., & Hugh-Jones,S. (2017). How effective are mindfulness-based interventions for reducing stress among healthcare professionals? A systemic review and meta-analysis. Stress and Health, 33, 3–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2673.
Byrant, C., Fairbrother, G., & Fenton. (2000). The reflective influence of personal and workplace descriptors of stress. British Journal of Nursing, 9(13), 876–880. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2000.9.13.5517.
Carmody, J., & Baer, R. A. (2009). How long does mindfulness-basedstress reduction program need to be? A review of class contact hours and effect sizes for psychological distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6), 627–638. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20555.
Ceravolo, D. & Raines, D.A. (2019). The impact of a mindfulness in-tervention for nurse managers. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 37 (1), 47–55. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898010118781620.
Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: A review and meta-analysis.The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 15(5), 593–600. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2008.0495.
Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure ofperceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 24(4), 385–396. https://doi.org/10.2307/2136404.
Cohen-Katz, J. C., Wiley, S. D., Capuano, T., Baker, M. A., & Shapiro, S.(2005). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on nurse stress and burnout, part II: A quantitative and qualitative study. Holistic Nursing Practice, 19, 26–35. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004650-200501000-00008.
Crowder, R. & Sears, A. (2017). Building resilience in social workers:An exploratory study on the impacts of a mindfulness-based inter- vention. Australian Social Work, 70(1), 17–29. https://doi.org/10.1080/0312407x.2016.1203965.
Cucarella, S.P. & Gianinni, M.C. (2016). Effectiveness of a pilot mind-fulness program in volunteers for a breast cancer association. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 21 (4), 291 – 294. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 2156587215602408.
Dobie, A., Tucker, A., Ferrari, M., & Rogers, J.M. (2016). Preliminaryevaluation of a brief mindfulness-based stress intervention for men- tal health professionals. Australasian Psychiatry, 24(1), 42–45. https://doi.org/10.1177/1039856215618524.
Dougherty, E., Pierce, B., Ma, C., Panzarella, T., Rodin, G., & Zimmermann, C. (2009). Factors associated with work stress and professional satisfaction in oncology staff. American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 26, 105–111. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049909108330027.
Duarte, J. & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2016). Effectiveness of a mindfulness- based intervention on oncology nurses’ burnout and compassion fatigue symptoms: A non-randomized study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 64, 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2016.10.002.
Ducar, D.M., Penberthy, J.M., Schorling, J.B., Leavell, V.A., &Calland, J.F. (2019). Mindfulness for healthcare providers fosters professional quality of life and mindful attention among emergency medical technician. Explore, 16 (1), 61–68. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.explore.2019.07.015.
Duchemin, A.M., Steinberg, B.A., Marks, D.R., Vanover, K., & Klatt,M. (2015). A small randomized pilot study of a workplace mindfulness-based intervention forsurgical intensive care unit per-sonnel: Effects on salivary amylase levels. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 57(4); 393–399. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0000000000000371.
Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). (1998). Quality assess- ment tool for quantitative studies. Hamilton, ON: Effective PublicHealth Practice Project. Retrieved from: http://www.ephpp.ca/ index.html. Accessed 01.12.2014.
Escuriex, B. F., & Labbe, E. E. (2011). Healthcare providers’ mindful-ness and treatment outcomes: A critical review of the research liter- ature. Mindfulness, 2, 242–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671- 011-0068-z.
Fahrenkopf, A. M., Sectish, T. C., Barger, L. K., Sharek, P. J., Lewin, D.,Chiang, V. W., et al. (2008). Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: A prospective cohort study. British Medical Journal, 336, 488–491. https://doi.org/10.1136/ bmj.39469.763218.be.
Farber, B. A. (1983). Introduction: A critical perspective on burnout. InB. A. Farber (Ed.), Stress and burnout in the human services professions (pp. 1–20). New York, NY: Pergamon.
Fortney, L., Luchterhand, C., Zakletskaia, L., Zgierska, A., & Rakel, D. (2013). Abbreviated mindfulness intervention for job satisfaction, quality of life, and com passion in primary care clinicians: A pilotstudy. Annals of Family Medicine, 11(5), 412–420. https://doi.org/10.1370/afm.1511.
Gaspar, I., Martinho, A., & Lima, M. (2018). Exploring the benefits of a mindfulness program for Portuguese public healthcare workers. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9987-3.
Geary, C. & Rosenthal, S. (2011). Sustained impact of MBSR on stress, well-being, and daily spiritual experiences for one year in academic healthcare employees. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(10), 939–944. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2010.0335.
Goodman, M. J. & Schorling, J.B. (2012). A mindfulness course de- creases burnout and improves well-being among healthcare pro- viders. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 43(2), 119–128. https://doi.org/10.2190/pm.43.2.b.
Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and mindfulness-based stressreduction improve mental health and well-being? A systematic re- view and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical PsychologyReview, 37, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.09.011.
Hallman, I.S., O’Connor, N., Hasenau, S., & Brady, S. (2017). Improving the culture of safety on a high-acuity inpatient child/ adolescent psychiatric unit by mindfulness-based stress reductiontraining of staff. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 30, 175–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcap.12191.
Hayes, S. C., & Wilson, K. G. (1994). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Altering the verbal support for experiential avoidance. The Behaviour Analyst, 17, 289–303. https://doi.org/10.1007/ bf03392677.
Irving, J. A., Dobkin, P. L., & Park, J. (2009). Cultivating mindfulness in healthcare professionals: A review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based STRESS REDUCTION PROGRAMME ON ELDERLY PEOPLE MENTAL HEALTH. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15, 61–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.01.002.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness medita-tion: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4(1), 33–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0163-8343(82)90026-3
Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York, NY: Hyperion Books.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2013). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York, NY: Delta.
Klein, A., Taieb, O., Xavier, S., Baubet, T., & Reyre, A. (2019). The benefits of mindfulness-based interventions on burnout among health professionals: A systematic review. Explore, 16(1), 35–43.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2019.09.002.
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York, NY: Springer.
Lomas, T., Medina, J. C., Ivtzan, I., Rupprecht, S., & Eiroa-Orosa, F. F. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of mindfulness-based interventions on the well-being of healthcare professionals. Mindfulness, 10, 1193–1216. https://doi.org/10. 1007/s12671-018-1062-5.
Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depressionanxiety stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney, Australia: Psychology Foundation.
MacKenzie, C. S., Poulin, P. A., & Seidman-Carlson, R. A. (2006). Abrief-mindfulness based stress reduction intervention for nurses and nurse aides. Nursing Research, 19, 105–109. https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.apnr.2005.08.002.
Manotas, M., Segura, C., Eraso, M., Oggins, J., & McGovern, K. (2014). Association of brief mindfulness training with reductions in perceived stress and distress in Colombian healthcare profes- sionals. International Journal of Stress Management, 21(2), 207–225. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035150.
Martin-Asuero, A. & Garcia-Banda, B. (2010). The mindfulness-basedstress reduction program (MBSR) reduces stress-related psycholog- ical distress in healthcare professionals. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13 (2), 897– 905. https://doi.org/10.1017/ s1138741600002547.