Digital Detriments: Unraveling the Psychological Consequences of Social Media
Keywords:Social Media, Mental Health, Anxiety, Depression.
This research paper investigates social media's impact on mental health. Given the rising prevalence within social media use, Concern about its implications on mental health is rising. The paper presents a systematic review of the literature, synthesizing findings from empirical studies that investigate the Mental health and social media use are related outcomes. The paper examines both favorable and unfavorable characteristics of social media use, including its potential for social support and connection, as well as its association with negative outcomes such as depression, anxiety, and social isolation. The paper also examines potential moderating factors, such as age, gender, and the type of social media platform used. Overall, the findings suggest despite the fact that social media might improve mental health, it can also be associated with negative outcomes, particularly for vulnerable populations such as adolescents and young adults. The significance of these studies for population safety and potential future study avenues are discussed in the paper's conclusion.
Abdel-Baki, A., Lal, S., Charron, D.-C., Stip, E., & Kara, N. (2017). Understanding access and use of technology among youth with first-episode psychosis to inform the development of technology-enabled therapeutic interventions. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 11(1), 72–76.
Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287–293.
Aschbrenner, K. A., Naslund, J. A., Grinley, T., Bienvenida, J. C. M., Bartels, S. J., & Brunette, M. (2018b). A survey of online and mobile technology use at peer support agencies. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1–10.
Baer, D. (2014, November 18). Psychology of why Instagram is addictive. Insider.
Birnbaum, M. L., Rizvi, A. F., Correll, C. U., Kane, J. M., & Confino, J. (2017b). Role of social media and the Internet in pathways to care for adolescents and young adults with psychotic disorders and non-psychotic mood disorders. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 11(4), 290–295.
Berger, M., Wagner, T. H., & Baker, L. C. (2005). Internet use and stigmatized illness. Social Science & Medicine, 61(8), 1821–1827.
Brunette, M., Achtyes, E., Pratt, S., Stilwell, K., Opperman, M., Guarino, S., & Kay-Lambkin, F. (2019). Use of smartphones, computers and social media among people with SMI: opportunity for intervention. Community Mental Health Journal, 1–6.
Burrow, A. L., & Rainone, N. (2017). How many likes did I get?: Purpose moderates links between positive social media feedback and self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 69, 232–236.
Cain, J. (2018). It’s time to confront student mental health issues associated with smartphones and social media. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 82(7), 6862.
Cleveland Clinic. (2018, November 7). Somatic symptom disorder in adults. Cleveland Clinic.
El-Khoury, J., Haidar, R., Kanj, R. R., Bou Ali, L., & Majari, G. (2021). Characteristics of social media “detoxification” in university students. The Libyan Journal of Medicine, 16(1), 1846861.
Firth, J., Cotter, J., Torous, J., Bucci, S., Firth, J. A., & Yung, A. R. (2015). Mobile phone ownership and endorsement of “mHealth” among people with psychosis: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 42(2), 448–455.
Gay, K., Torous, J., Joseph, A., Pandya, A., & Duckworth, K. (2016). Digital technology use among individuals with schizophrenia: results of an online survey. JMIR Mental Health, 3(2), e15.
Glick, G., Druss, B., Pina, J., Lally, C., & Conde, M. (2016). Use of mobile technology in a community mental health setting. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 22(7), 430–435.
Hampton, K., Rainie, L., Lu, Weixu, L., Shin, I., & Purcell, K. (2015, January 15).
Psychological stress and social media use. Pew Research Center.
Hendricks, S. (2020, November 6). Why you should cut back on social media and how to do it. Big Think.
Highton-Williamson, E., Priebe, S., & Giacco, D. (2015). Online social networking in people with psychosis: a systematic review. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(1), 92–101.
Hou, Y., Xiong, D., Jiang, T., Song, L., & Wang, Q. (2019). Social media addiction: Its impact, mediation, and intervention. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 13(1).
Lyons, D. (2020, February 3). Anxiety and social media use. Psychology Today.
Miller, B. J., Stewart, A., Schrimsher, J., Peeples, D., & Buckley, P. F. (2015). How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use. Psychiatry Research, 225(3), 458–463.
Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2016). How people living with serious mental illness use smartphones, mobile apps, and social media. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 39(4), 364–367.
Orben, A., & Przybylski, A. K. (2019). The association between adolescent well- being and digital technology use. Nature Human Behaviour, 3(2), 173–182.
O’Reilly, M., Dogra, N., Whiteman, N., Hughes, J., Eruyar, S., & Reilly, P. (2018). Is social media bad for mental health and wellbeing? Exploring the perspectives of adolescents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 23(4), 601–613.
Patel, V., Saxena, S., Lund, C., Thornicroft, G., Baingana, F., Bolton, P., et al. (2018). The Lancet Commission on global mental health and sustainable development. The Lancet, 392(10157), 1553–1598.
Primack, B. A., Shensa, A., Escobar-Viera, C. G., Barrett, E. L., Sidani, J. E., Colditz, J. B., & James, A. E. (2017). Use of multiple social media platforms and symptoms of depression and anxiety: A nationally-representative study among U.S. young adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 1–9.
Radovic, A., Gmelin, T., Stein, B. D., & Miller, E. (2017). Depressed adolescents’ positive and negative use of social media. Journal of Adolescence, 55, 5–15.
Torous, J., Chan, S. R., Tan, S. Y.-M., Behrens, J., Mathew, I., Conrad, E. J., et al. (2014a). Patient smartphone ownership and interest in mobile apps to monitor symptoms of mental health conditions: a survey in four geographically distinct psychiatric clinics. JMIR Mental Health, 1(1), e5.
Torous, J., & Keshavan, M. (2016). The role of social media in schizophrenia: evaluating risks, benefits, and potential. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 29(3), 190–195.
Trefflich, F., Kalckreuth, S., Mergl, R., & Rummel-Kluge, C. (2015). Psychiatric patients’ internet use corresponds to the internet use of the general public. Psychiatry Research, 226, 136–141.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, W. K. (2018). Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a
population- based study. Preventive Medicine Reports, 12, 271–283.
Vannucci, A., Flannery, K. M., & Ohannessian, C. M. (2017). Social media use and anxiety in emerging adults. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 163–166.
We Are Social. (2020). Digital in 2020. Retrieved from https://wearesocial.com/global-digital-report-2019.
Vaughen, K. (2021, February 5). Decade-long BYU study finds link between social media use and suicide risk.
Vogel, E. A., Rose, J. P., Okdie, B. M., Eckles, K., & Franz, B. (2015). Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social media use and its outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 249–256.
Weinstein, E. (2018). The social media see-saw: Positive and negative influences on adolescents’ affective well-being. New Media & Society, 20(10), 3597–3623.